CHEMICAL COORDINATION AND INTEGRATION

ENDOCRINE GLANDS AND HORMONES

Endocrine glands are ductless glands and their secretions are known as Hormones. They are chemical messengers which are secreted in trace amounts and affects the target organ of the body.

PITUITARY GLANDS AND HORMONES

Pituitary gland release several hormones which regulate the functioning of different parts of the body. Growth hormone, PRL, TSH, ACTH, LH, FSH, MSH, oxytocin and vasopressin are the hormones released by the pituitary gland.

THYROID AND PARATHYROID GLAND

Thyroid glands are located in our neck region and secretes thyroxine, TCT and calcitonin hormone. On the other hand Parathyroid gland is located on the posterior side of thyroid gland and release PTH.

ADRENAL GLAND

Adrenal glands are supra-renal glands which consists of two parts; cortex and medulla which releases certain hormones to regulate the process of human body.

GONADS

Gonads,testes in male and ovary in female are the reproductive glands which secretes hormones that helps in the reproduction of male and female. Testes secrete androgen, inhibin,AMF and ovary release estrogen and progesterone.

PANCREAS

Pancreas is a composite gland which function as both exocrine and endocrine gland. The endocrine pancreas consists of islets of langerhans. Alpha cells of pancreas secretes glucagon and beta cells release insulin.

THYMUS GLAND

Thymus gland is a lymphoid organ that secretes the peptide hormone thymosin. Thymus gland promotes the development of specific cell of the immune system called as T- lymphocytes.

PINEAL GLAND

Pineal gland is an endocrine gland found in the cerrebral ventricle in the brain midline. Pineal gland release melatonin hormone which controls circadian rhythm of the body.

HYPOTHALAMUS

Hypothalamus is the basal part of the brain which contain neuro-secretory cells called nuclei These nuclei produce hormones which regulate the functioning of pituitary hormones.

MECHANISM OF HORMONE ACTION

Hormones are natural organic substances that regulate growth, metabolism of the body. Protein hormones perform their action through extracellular receptors while mode of action of steroid hormones is through intracellular receptor.

DWARFISM

Dwarfism is a condition in which the growth of the individual is very slow resulting in short stature. There are two types of dwarfism; Proportionate and Disproportionate dwarfism.

ACROMEGALY

Acromegaly is a hormonal disorder that results from the excess of Growth hormone (GH)in the body. In Acromegaly pituitary produces excessive amounts of growth hormone.It is often diagnosed in middle aged adults and can result in serious illness and premature death.

CRETINISM

Cretinism refers to severe hypothyroidism which is due to the deficiency of thyroid hormone. This is a medical condition present at birth and characterized by physical deformity, dwarfism and mental retardation..

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