ENERGY FLOW IN ECOSYSTEM:
Limitations of ecological pyramids:
Ecosystem is the interaction of living organisms with their environment. Biotic and abiotic components constitute the physical structure of ecosystem. Productivity and decomposition are another components of ecosystem.
Nutrient cycling means movement of nutrients through various component of ecosystem. This includes sedimentary and gaseous cycle where phosphorous is an element which is found on earth it flows in cyclic manner while carbon is found in gaseous state it cycles and return back to atmosphere.
Ecological succession is gradual and predictable change in species composition of given area.Succession in plants are of two types: xerarch and hydrarch succession.