Succession in plants:
Xerarch succession: Succession in bare rock:
Hydrarch (succession in aquatic environment)
Ecosystem is the interaction of living organisms with their environment. Biotic and abiotic components constitute the physical structure of ecosystem. Productivity and decomposition are another components of ecosystem.
Nutrient cycling means movement of nutrients through various component of ecosystem. This includes sedimentary and gaseous cycle where phosphorous is an element which is found on earth it flows in cyclic manner while carbon is found in gaseous state it cycles and return back to atmosphere.
Sun is the only source of energy on earth. Energy flow in the ecosystem is unidirectional. Food chain , food web and ecological pyramids are the ways of flow of energy from one trophic level to another trophic level.