• Potency or power or ability of a single cell/ explants to develop a whole plant is called totipotency.
  • This property led the scientist able to develop whole plant from explants – any part of plant, cell grown in a test tube, under sterile condition in special nutrient medium.
  • The nutrient medium provides a carbon source such as sucrose. Inorganic salts, vitamins amino acids and growth regulator like auxin, cytokinin.
  • The method of production of thousands of plants through tissue culture is called micropropagation.
  • Plants grown by micropropagation are genetically identical called somaclones.

Application of tissue culture:

  • Production of large number of plant from small tissue or single cell.
  • Production of genetically identical plants (somaclones)
  • Recovery of healthy plants from diseased plants by meristem culture. Although the plant infected with virus, the meristem is free of virus.

Somatic hybridization:

  • Isolation of single cells from the plants.
  • Digestion of cell wall to get protoplast of different donor cells, by use of cellulase and pectinase.
  • Two protoplast of two different plants with desirable character are fused to form hybrid protoplast, either by using electric field or by PEG (polyethylene glycol).
  • These hybrids are called somatic hybrid and the process called somatic hybridization. E.g. production pomato plant from potato and tomato.

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