Why should we conserve Biodiversity?
Reason for conservation biodiversity is grouped into three categories.

  • Narrowly utilitarian.
  • Broadly utilitarian
  • Ethical

Narrowly utilitarian:

  • Human derive countless direct economic benefits from nature-
  • Food (cereals, pulses, fruits), firewood, fiber, construction material.
  • Industrial products (tannins, lubricants, dyes, resins, perfumes)
  • Products of medicinal importance.
  • Bioprospecting: exploring molecular genetics and species-level diversity for products of economic importance.

Broadly Utilitarian

  • Amazonian forest along produce 20% of oxygen during photosynthesis.
  • Pollinator layer: bees, bumblebees, birds and bat that pollinate the plant without which seed cannot be produced by plants.
  • Aesthetic pleasure we get from the biodiversity.


How do we conserve biodiversity?


In situ conservation:

  • When we conserve and protect the whole ecosystem, its biodiversity at all level is protected – we save the entire forest to save the tiger. This approach is called in situ (on site) conservation.
  • Biodiversity hot spot: regions with very high levels of species richness and high degree of endemism.(species confined to that region and not found anywhere else)
  • Hot spot in biodiversity is also regions of accelerated habitat loss.
  • Out of 34 hot spot in the world, three hot spot located in India:
    • Western Ghats and Sri lanka.
    • Indo-Burma.
    • Himalaya.


  • Other protected area under in situ conservations are:
    • 14 biosphere reserve
    • 90 national park
    • 448 wild life sanctuary


  • Sacred groves: tract of forest were set aside, and all the trees and wildlife within were venerated and given total protection.

Ex situ conservation: threatened animals and plants are taken out from their natural habitat and placed in special setting where they can be protected and given special care.

  • Zoological Park.
  • Botanical garden
  • Wildlife safari.
  • Conservation of gamete by cryopreservation.
  • Genetic strains are preserved in seed bank.

Convention on Biodiversity:

  • “The earth Summit” held in Rio de Jeneiro in 1992 called upon all nations to take appropriate measures for conservation of biodiversity and sustainable utilization of its benefits.

World Summit on Sustainable development held in 2002 in Johannesburg, South Africa, 190 countries pledged their commitment to achieve by 2010 a significant reduction in the current rate of biodiversity loss at global, regional and local level.

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Biodiversity refers to the totality of genes, species and ecosystem of a region. There are three types of biodiversity; genetic, species and ecological diversity.


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