• Stands for Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome.
  • Deficiency of immune system that acquired during life time and not congenital disease.
  • Syndrome means a group of symptoms.
  • AIDS was first reported in 1981.
  • AIDS is caused by HIV (Human Immuno deficiency Virus)
  • HIV is retrovirus, having RNA as the genetic material.

Method of transmission:

  • Sexual contact with infected persons.
  • Transfusion of contaminated blood and blood products.
  • Sharing infected needles as intravenous drug user.
  • From infected mother to the foetus through placenta.


Life cycle of HIV:

  • After getting into the body the HIV enters into macrophages orT-helper cells.
  • The viral RNA genome replicated to form viral DNA with the enzyme called reverse transcriptase.
  • The viral DNA gets incorporated into the host cell’s DNA by an enzyme called integrase, and directs the infected cell s to produce virus particle.
  • The macrophage continues to produce virus and acts as HIV factory.
  • Virus released from macrophage attack T-helper cells.
  • There is progressive reduction in the number of T-helper cells.
  • Due to reduction of T-helper cells the person starts suffering from infections of other virus, fungi and even parasites like Toxoplasma.
  • The patient becomes immuno deficient and more prone to other disease.


  • ELISA (enzyme linked Immuno-sorbent assay)

Prevention of AIDS:

  • AIDS has no cure, prevention is the best option.
  • Safe blood for transfusion
  • Use of disposable needles
  • Free distribution of condoms.
  • Prevention of drug abuse
  • Advocating safe sex and promoting regular checkup.

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