It means “porous bones”; bones become weaker which increases the risk fractures especially in the region of hip, spinal vertebrae and wrist. Osteoporosis is a condition that deteriorates the bones and makes it brittle due to low bone mass and loss of bone tissue. As a result, it makes the person extremely susceptible to fractures. These types of fractures are called fragile fractures.
Types of Bones tissues:
Bones provides the body with structure, support and protection for internal organs. It is composed of calcium and other minerals that provide strength and rigidity. It also consist of bone marrow which the site of formation of blood cells. Every bone consists of two types of bone tissue:
These types of bones are assisted by nerve and blood supply whereas the fat and bone marrow covers all the spaces. There are certain bones at the end of the long bones such as the ones in the legs and the arms.
It is also known as precursor of osteoporosis. In this condition, bones are not fragile as in osteoporosis, but they are weaker than the older bone. This condition is characterized by the body’s inability to make new tissues as quickly it reabsorbs old bone tissues. This makes the bones weaker. It is frequently seen in people above the age of 30. It is commonly inherited among the family members and women are more prone to this condition.
Causes of Osteoporosis:
There are following factors which are categorized in such a way:
In the initial phase of osteoporosis, there are no visible symptoms or signs seen in patents, but over the time the following symptoms begin to appear. Such symptoms are;
The main aim of osteoporosis is as follows:
Skeletal system is made up of bones and cartilage. It is oftwo types; axial and appendicular skeleton. Skeletal system performs functions like;support, movement, protection,sexual dimorphism, mineral haemostasis.
Movement is one of the significant features of all living organism. Movement involves four basic mechanism:amoeboid, ciliary, flagellar and muscular. There are three types of muscles that helps in locomotion; skeletal, visceral and cardiac muscles.
Muscle cells are specialized for contraction which also helps in bodily processes such as respiration and digestion.Sarcomere must shortens for a muscle cell to contract.The sliding filament model defines the concept of muscle contraction.
Joints is a point of articulation where two or more bones meet. The motions like spin, swing, approximation and gliding movements are made possible by joints. Joints can be classified as fibrous, cartilaginous and synovial joints. Pivot and hinge joints are synovial joints.
Gout is a kind of arthritis caused by a build up of uric acid crystals in the joints. Gout is characterized by sudden, severe attack of pain, swelling, redness and tenderness in the joints and often at the big toe. Gout can be treated by proper medications such as colchicine, NSAIDS, corticoisteroids, drugs.
Tetany is a series of symptoms characterized bypainful muscles cramps that derives from enhanced neuro-muscular excitability due to hypocalcemia hypomagnesemia or alkalosis. There are three types of tetany; hypocalcaemic, grass and latent tetany.
Myasthenia Gravis is a neuromuscular disorder which results in weakness in the skeletal muscles. It is the most common primary disorder of neuromuscular transmission. Corticosteroids and immuno-suppressants helps to minimize the abnormal immune system.
Arthritis is a combination of disease which includes joint pain or joint disease. It is an inflammation of joints that affects one or multiple joints. The most common types of arthritis are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.
Muscular dystrophy is a group of inherited disease that damage and weaken muscle over the time. The damage and weakness is due to the lack of protein dystrophin which results in problem in walking, swallowing and muscle coordination.