TETANY

TETANY:

Introduction:

  • Tetany is a series of symptoms which is characterized by painful muscle cramps that derives from enhanced neuro-muscular excitability due to hypocalcemia hypomagnesemia or alkalosis.
  • There are numerous medical conditions that are likely would not be able to identify if they happened to you like catching cold is obvious in digestive distress after a disagreeable meal. But sometimes like tetany can throw people who are not feeling normal and sometimes their doctor for a loop.
  • Tetany involves overly stimulated neuro- muscular activity.
  • Tetany is a symptom which can brought on by a variety of conditions. This means that its sometiimes difficlut to find what causing this symptom.
  • Tetany looks like overly stimulated nerves causes involuntary muscle cramps nd contraction, most often in the hands and feet. But these spasms  can extend throughout the body and even into the larynx or voice box which causing breathing problems.
  • Tetany results in vomiting, convulsions, serious pain, seizures and heart dysfunction.
  • Many disease like endocrine disorders like hypoparathyroidism and alkalosis by hyperventilation can cause tetany infusion of calcium and magnesium is effective as an acute therapy for tetany. However, subseuent diagnosis and treatment of undertaking diseases  are mandatory.

          

Definition:

Tetany is a condition of physiological calcium imbalance marked by tonic spasm of muscles and often associated with defecient parathyroid secretion.

Types of tetany:

There are such major types of tetany:

  1. Hypocalcaemic tetany:  It is caused by unusually low calcium level in the blood stream. Hypocalcaemia tetany is marked by symptoms like excessive sensitivity of the neural and muscular tissues in adult women.
  2. Grass tetany: It is an acute metabolic disease that primarily arises in cow milk. However, all cattles are at risk of having this condition. It is also known as Grass staggers hypomagnesemia and lactation tetany. This disorder results from a drop in the level of magnesium in the bloodstream. The condition usually arise during the grazing of cattle in spring and autumn season. Cows that graze on wheat, oats or ryegrass in jnauary and december are highly susceptible to having this condition. Grazing in feilds where the soil is rich in potassium or magnesium may also give rise to grass tetany disease.
  3. Latent tetany: Tetany that requires mechanical or electrical stimulation of nerves to show characterstic signs of excitability, the opposite of manifest tetany. It is a form of tetany i.e. elicited only by mechanical or electrical stimuli. The symptoms are non- specific; the generalized weakness and cramping in the hand and foot.

Causes of Tetany:

Tetany can be the result of an electrolyte imbalance. Mostly it is due to low calcium level and this condition is known as hypocalcaemia. There are some causes which can cause tetany; such are:

  • Tetany can also be caused by Mg defeciency or the person with tooo little of potassium.
  • When the person having too much acid; a condition called acidosis or too much of alkali or alkalosis can also result in tetany. For example; hypothyroidism is a condition in which the body does not create enough PTH or paratharmone. This can lead to dramatically lower calcium level which can trigger tetany.
  • Sometimes kidney failure or problems with the pancreas can interfere with the calcium levels in the body. In these cases, it is a organ failure that leads to tetany by hypocalcaemia. Low blood protein, septic shock and some blood transfusion can also adversely affect blood calcium level which can result in tetany.
  • Other reason for teatny is the toxins; one such example is the botulinum toxin that is found in spoiled foods or bacteria in soil that enter the body through casts or injuries.

Symptoms :

           

Tetany includes associated sensory disturbances. Symptoms of tetany includes:

  • Carpopedal spasm
  • Laryngospasm
  • Generalized seizure

          

Diagnosis:

Tetany can be diagnosed by following methods:

  • Squeezing the finger cn trigger cramps of this disease and lead to a diagnosis tetany. This can also be detected by tapping near the ear at the emerging point of the facial membrane. This is known as chvostek sign.
  • Doctors can analyze the medical history of the patient. Blood tests can also conducted to find out whether there is an increase in phosphorous level and a defeciency  of vitamin D and calcium.

Treatment:

The aim of treatment is to restore the metabolic balance. This may done by intravenous administration of calcium as is done in case of hypocalcaemia or calcium defeciency. Cure is mainly done in many ways such as prescription drugs, medications and lifestyle modifications. If all other methods of treatment fail to bring about treatment in the condition of a patient with tetany then surgical operations may be used.

  • The method of cure actually depends on the underlying condition of the disorder. Surgical operation fo curing this disease is usually paratyroidectomy which causes removal of tumors.
  • Parathyroidectomy is performed to cure hyperparathyroidism, wchi can often lead to severe dysfunction of the rest of parathyroid glands. This may lead to severe  hyperparathyroidism and acute hypocalcaemia that may arise all of sudden. This hypocalcaemia can results in life endangering tetany and possibly the blockage of airways. Such cases are infrequent but reuire immediate treatment that may be done with the aid of intravenous calcium and careful supervision o

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