The motions made possible by joints; such motions are spinnning, swinging, gliding, rolling and approximation.
Classification of Joints:
Joints are either permanent or transient. The bones of a transient joints fuse together sooner or later but always after birth. All the joints of the skull, for example, joints are transient except those of the middle ear and those between the lower jaw and the braincase. The bones of a permanent joint do not fuse together except as the result of disease or surgery. Such fusion is called arthrodesis. All permanent and some transient joint permit movement. Movement of the later may be temporary as with the roof bones of an infant’s skull during birth or long term and as with the joints of the base of the skull during postnatal development. There are two basic structural type of joint, diarthrosis, in which fluid is present and synarthrosis, in which there is no fluid. All the diathrosis or commonly called as synovial joint; they are permanent. Some of the synatrosis are transient and others are permanent.
There are three types of joint:
Types of synovial joint:
Functions of Joints:
Skeletal system is made up of bones and cartilage. It is oftwo types; axial and appendicular skeleton. Skeletal system performs functions like;support, movement, protection,sexual dimorphism, mineral haemostasis.
Movement is one of the significant features of all living organism. Movement involves four basic mechanism:amoeboid, ciliary, flagellar and muscular. There are three types of muscles that helps in locomotion; skeletal, visceral and cardiac muscles.
Muscle cells are specialized for contraction which also helps in bodily processes such as respiration and digestion.Sarcomere must shortens for a muscle cell to contract.The sliding filament model defines the concept of muscle contraction.
Gout is a kind of arthritis caused by a build up of uric acid crystals in the joints. Gout is characterized by sudden, severe attack of pain, swelling, redness and tenderness in the joints and often at the big toe. Gout can be treated by proper medications such as colchicine, NSAIDS, corticoisteroids, drugs.
Tetany is a series of symptoms characterized bypainful muscles cramps that derives from enhanced neuro-muscular excitability due to hypocalcemia hypomagnesemia or alkalosis. There are three types of tetany; hypocalcaemic, grass and latent tetany.
Myasthenia Gravis is a neuromuscular disorder which results in weakness in the skeletal muscles. It is the most common primary disorder of neuromuscular transmission. Corticosteroids and immuno-suppressants helps to minimize the abnormal immune system.
Arthritis is a combination of disease which includes joint pain or joint disease. It is an inflammation of joints that affects one or multiple joints. The most common types of arthritis are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.
Osteoporosis is a condition that deteriorates the bones and makes it brittle due to low bone mass and loss of bone density. There are many factors which cause osteoporosis like age, diet, drugs etc. It can be treated by proper treatment and medications.
Muscular dystrophy is a group of inherited disease that damage and weaken muscle over the time. The damage and weakness is due to the lack of protein dystrophin which results in problem in walking, swallowing and muscle coordination.