ENDOCRINE GLANDS AND HORMONES:
· The human endocrine system, along with the exocrine and heterocrine glands helps in the control and co-ordination of the body. Both the nervous and the endocrine system collectively form the neuro- endocrine system. The study of these two systems is called Neuro-endocrinology.
· The endocrine system consist of a group of specialized glands called endocrine glands and the substances called hormones.
· The endocrine glands pour their secretions directly into the blood due to absence of ducts. Hence, the endocrine glands are also known as ductless glands and the secretions of these glands are called hormones.
· Hormones are chemical messenger secreted in trace amounts by glands or neurons. Each hormones usually affects the target cells and regulates a definite physiological effect by binding to the hormone receptors found either on the surface of the cell or within its cytoplasm.
· Hormones may be polypeptide, steroids, amino acid derivative or biogenic amines. Protein hormones or peptide hormones produced by the hypothalamus, pituitary, parathyroid and pancreas. For example, Relaxin is a protein hormone produced from the ovary and a hormone from the placenta i.e. HCG is also another protein hormone. Steroid hormones are produced from the adrenal medulla and the pineal gland. The hormone of the thyroid gland called thyroxin is an iodinated derivative of an amino acid.
· Hormones are also secreted by the exocrine glands such as the salivary gland, the sweat gland and the sebaceous gland, which releases their secretions through ducts, hence called Duct glands.
· The pancreas and the Gonads have both exocrine and endocrine properties. Hence called Heterocrine glands. In these glands the exocrine part releases it hormones secretions through ducts while the endocrine part releases its hormones directly into the blood.
· Hormones are also secreted by the GI tract, the liver, the kidneys and the heart.
· Thomas Addison is known as Father of Endocrinology.
· The human endocrine system consists of various endocrine glands present in different parts of the body.
· Endocrine glands does not have ducts, they are responsible for bloodstream to transfer hormones. These hormones are produced in the glands and used to regulate physiology and behaviour. They are chemicals which are produced in trace amounts that act as intercellular messengers.
· Hypothalamus is present in the basal parts of the diencephalon while the pituitary gland, the master gland of the endocrine system is present below the hypothalamus.
· Pineal gland is present on the dorsal side of the forebrain.
· Thyroid gland, the largest endocrine gland is located on the ventral and lateral side of the upper part of the trachea, while Parathyroid glands are four pea shaped glands embedded wholly or partially in the dorsal surface of the thyroid gland.
· Thymus gland is located just above the heart and pancreas (second largest endocrine glands is located on the loop of the duodenum.
· Adrenal glands are present on the upper surface of both the kidneys. The gonads are also endocrine gland; in males the scrotal sacs bears a pair of testis, while in females the abdomen bears a pair of ovaries.
· The function of various endocrine glands like thyroid, adrenal, ovary and testes are regulated by hormones from the pituitary gland.
· The function of the pituitary glands is regulated by the hormones of the hypothalamus. The primary target of the hypothalamic hormone is the pituitary gland in turn is regulated by the hormones of the hypothalamus. The primary target of the hypothalamic hormone is the pituitary gland.
· Hormones reaching their target organ through the blood stimulate the synthesis of specific proteins or other secretory products in the target cells. The hormones are recognized at specific recognition sites known as hormone receptors. These receptors are present either on the cell membrane or in the cytoplasm and nucleus of the cell. The synthesis of specific protein leads to other biological, biochemical and physiological actions of individual hormones.
Function of Endocrine Gland:
· The main function of endocrine gland is to secrete hormone directly into the bloodstream. Hormones are chemical substance that affects the activity of target site in the body.
· Hormones serve as messengers, controlling and coordinating activities throughout the body. Upon reaching a target site, a hormone binds to the receptor and transmit signal to the target site to perform specific function.
· Hormones also influence the way the body uses and stores energy and control the volume of fluid and the levels of salts and sugar (glucose) in the blood.
· Maintain a stable environment or homeostasis.
· Control growth of body.
· Helps in development of an organism.
· Hormones of endocrine glands are involved in reproduction of organism.
· Helps in response to stimuli.
· Very small amount of hormone can trigger very large response in the body.
· Each type of hormone influences only certain organs and tissues. Some hormones affect only one or two organs, whereas others hormones influences throughout the body.
· For example, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), produced in pituitary gland affects only the thyroid gland. Thyroid hormone produced in the thyroid gland affects cells throughout the body and is involved in function like regulating growth of cells, controlling the heart rates, affecting the speed at which calories are burned. Insulin, secreted by the islet cells of pancreas, affects the processing (metabolism) of glucose, protein and fat throughout the body.
· Most hormones are derived from protein. Others are steroids, which are faaty substances derived from cholesterol.
Pituitary gland release several hormones which regulate the functioning of different parts of the body. Growth hormone, PRL, TSH, ACTH, LH, FSH, MSH, oxytocin and vasopressin are the hormones released by the pituitary gland.
Thyroid glands are located in our neck region and secretes thyroxine, TCT and calcitonin hormone. On the other hand Parathyroid gland is located on the posterior side of thyroid gland and release PTH.
Adrenal glands are supra-renal glands which consists of two parts; cortex and medulla which releases certain hormones to regulate the process of human body.
Gonads,testes in male and ovary in female are the reproductive glands which secretes hormones that helps in the reproduction of male and female. Testes secrete androgen, inhibin,AMF and ovary release estrogen and progesterone.
Pancreas is a composite gland which function as both exocrine and endocrine gland. The endocrine pancreas consists of islets of langerhans. Alpha cells of pancreas secretes glucagon and beta cells release insulin.
Thymus gland is a lymphoid organ that secretes the peptide hormone thymosin. Thymus gland promotes the development of specific cell of the immune system called as T- lymphocytes.
Pineal gland is an endocrine gland found in the cerrebral ventricle in the brain midline. Pineal gland release melatonin hormone which controls circadian rhythm of the body.
Hypothalamus is the basal part of the brain which contain neuro-secretory cells called nuclei These nuclei produce hormones which regulate the functioning of pituitary hormones.
Hormones are natural organic substances that regulate growth, metabolism of the body. Protein hormones perform their action through extracellular receptors while mode of action of steroid hormones is through intracellular receptor.
Dwarfism is a condition in which the growth of the individual is very slow resulting in short stature. There are two types of dwarfism; Proportionate and Disproportionate dwarfism.
Acromegaly is a hormonal disorder that results from the excess of Growth hormone (GH)in the body. In Acromegaly pituitary produces excessive amounts of growth hormone.It is often diagnosed in middle aged adults and can result in serious illness and premature death.
Cretinism refers to severe hypothyroidism which is due to the deficiency of thyroid hormone. This is a medical condition present at birth and characterized by physical deformity, dwarfism and mental retardation..
Goitre is an enlarged thyroid gland that causes the neck to swell. The thyroid gland is controlled by the pituitary gland which prompts the thyroid to secrete hormones T4 and T3 by releasing TSH. Excessive stimulation of the thyroid gland by TSH can result in goitre.
It is preferably known as Diabetes Mellitus. It is a group of metabolic disorders in which the person has high blood glucose due to inadequate insulin production. There are three types of diabetes; type-1, type-2, Gestational diabetes.
Exopthamic goitre is also known as Grave's disease. It is the most common form of hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis. It results in an abnormal over activity of the thyroid gland which produce too much of thyroid hormone; thyroxine.