·         Diseases or infections which are transmitted through sexual intercourse are known as STD's.

·         Also known as Venereal diseases (VD) or reproductive tract infections (RTIs)

·         Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Genital herpes, chlamydiasis, genital warts, trichomoniasis, hepatitis-B and HIV are some common STDs.

·         Except hepatitis-B, genital herpes and HIV infections, others are curable.


·         Itching, fluid discharge, slight pain, swelling in the genital region.

·         STDs remain asymptomatic in female and remain undetected for long.

·         In the later stage it may leads to Pelvic inflammatory diseases (PID), abortion, still births, ectopic pregnancy, infertility or even cancer in RT.


·         Avoid sex with unknown partners/ multiple partners.

·         Always use condoms during coitus.

·         In case of doubt, consult with a qualified doctor for early detection.

·         Get complete treatment if diagnosed with disease.


·         The couple unable to produce children inspite of unprotected sex.

·         The reason of infertility may be:-

o    physical,

o    congenital,

o    diseases,

o    drugs,

o    immunological or

o    Even psychological.

·         Problems of infertility may be in male or female.

·         Infertility clinic can diagnose and correct the cause of infertility.

·         In case there no corrections are possible, some special technologies used to have children called assisted reproductive technologies. (ART)

Assisted reproductive technologies:

(a) In vitro fertilization:

·         Fertilization outside the body in the laboratory.

·         Condition created in laboratory similar to the body.

(b) Embryo transfer:

·         Popularly known as test tube baby programme.

·         Ova from the wife/donor and sperm from the husband/donor are collected and induced to form zygote under simulated conditions in the laboratory.

·         The zygote or early embryos (with upto 8 blastomeres) could be transferred into the fallopian tube.

·         ZIFT- Zygote intra fallopian transfer.

·         IUT- Intra Uterine transfer (embryo with more than 8 blastomeres).

·         Further development taken place within the female body.

·         Embryo formed by in-vivo fertilization can also be transfer to assist those female who cannot conceive.

(c) Gamete intra fallopian transfer- GIFT

·         Transfer of ovum collected from the donor into the fallopian tube of another female who cannot produce it.

·         Such female can provide suitable environment for fertilization and development.

(d) Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI):

·         The sperm is directly injected into the ovum.

·         After in vitro fertilization either ZIFT or embryo transfer technique is followed.

(e) Artificial insemination (AI)

·         Semen is collected either from the husband or donor is artificially introduced into vagina or into the uterus (IUI-intra uterine insemination) of the female.

·         Such technology is useful in cases either the male partner unable to inseminate the female or very low sperm counts in the ejaculates.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Related Articles


Fertilization is the process of fusion of sperm and ova. Sex determination is the method for the identification of sex. Pregnancy and embryonic development are the process of reproduction.


Reproductive health can be decided by applying proper strategies. Population explosion are the result of decreased MMR(Maternal Mortality Rate} and IMR(Infant Mortality Rate).


Birth control methods are adopted to reduce birth rate. Certain methods are adopted to reduce birth rate. Medical termination of pregnancy or induced abortion are another measure of birth control.


Feel Free To Email Us .At: