BIRTH CONTROL METHODS:
It works on the principle of avoiding chances of ovum and sperms meeting.
· Avoid or abstain from coitus form day 10 to 17 of the menstrual cycle when ovulation could be expected.
· Chance of fertilization is very high in this period.
· It is called fertile period.
Withdrawal or coitus interruption:
· The male partner withdraws his penis from the vagina just before ejaculation, so as to avoid insemination into the vagina.
· No menstruation during lactation period.
· Chance of fertilization is nil.
· It is effective upto six month.
· Principle of working: prevents physical meeting of sperm and ovum.
· Such methods available both for male and female.
· Barriers made of thin rubber/latex sheath.
· Used to cover the penis in male or vagina and cervix in the female.
· Used just before coitus so that semen not entered into the female reproductive tract.
· Male and female condoms are disposable.
· Prevents AIDS and STDs.
Diaphragm, cervical caps and vaults:
· Barriers made of rubber.
· Inserted into the female reproductive tract to cover the cervix.
· Prevents conception by blocking the entry of sperm through cervix.
· They are reusable.
Intra Uterine Devices:
· These devices are only used by female.
· Inserted by doctor or by expert nurses in the uterus through vagina.
· Non-medicated IUDs e.g. Lippes loop.
· Copper releasing IUDs (CuT, Cu7, Multiload 375)
· Hormone releasing IUDs (Progestasert, LNG-20)
Principle of working:
· Increase phagocytosis of sperm within the uterus.
· Cu ion released suppresses sperm motility and fertilizing capacity of sperm.
· Hormone releasing IUDs make the uterus unsuitable for implantation and the cervix hostile to the sperm.
· This methods used by female only.
· Used in the form of tablets hence popularly called pills.
· Pills contain progestogens or progestogen-estrogen combination.
· Pills have to be taken daily for a period of 21 days.
· Started within first five days of menstruation.
· Pills are very effective with lesser side effect.
· Saheli- a non steroidal preparation used as oral contraceptive pills.
Principle of working:
· Inhibit ovulation.
· Inhibit implantation.
· Alter the quality of cervical mucus to prevent/retard entry of sperms.
Injections or implants:
· Progesterone alone or in combination with estrogen used as injections or implants under the skin by female.
· Mode of action is similar as in pills
· It is very effective for long periods.
· These methods are used within 72 hours of coitus, rape or casual unprotected intercourse.
· Administration of Progesterone or progesterone-estrogen combination.
· Use of IUDs.
· It is also called as sterilization method.
· Advised to both male and female partner.
· Permanent or terminal method to prevent pregnancy.
· Sterilization process in male is called ‘vasectomy,
· Sterilization process in female is called ‘Tubectomy’
· In vasectomy, a small part of the vas deferens is removed or tied up.
· In Tubectomy a small part of the fallopian tube is removed.
· Reversibility is very poor.
MEDICAL TERMINATION OF PREGNANCY:
· Intentional or voluntary termination of pregnancy before full term is called medical termination of pregnancy (MTP) or induced abortion.
· MTP has significant role in decreasing population.
· It accounts for 1/5th of the total number of conceived pregnancies.
· Legal restriction only to reduce female foeticide.
· This method is safe within 1st trimester.
Fertilization is the process of fusion of sperm and ova. Sex determination is the method for the identification of sex. Pregnancy and embryonic development are the process of reproduction.
Reproductive health can be decided by applying proper strategies. Population explosion are the result of decreased MMR(Maternal Mortality Rate} and IMR(Infant Mortality Rate).
Diseases which are transmitted through sexual intercourse are known as sexually transmitted disease. Such are gonorrhea, syphilis, trichomoniasis, hepatitis B,AIDS.