Natural methods:

It works on the principle of avoiding chances of ovum and sperms meeting.

Periodic abstinence:

·         Avoid or abstain from coitus form day 10 to 17 of the menstrual cycle when ovulation could be expected.

·         Chance of fertilization is very high in this period.

·         It is called fertile period.

Withdrawal or coitus interruption:

·         The male partner withdraws his penis from the vagina just before ejaculation, so as to avoid insemination into the vagina.

Lactational amenorrhea:

·         No menstruation during lactation period.

·         Chance of fertilization is nil.

·         It is effective upto six month.

 Barrier methods:

·         Principle of working: prevents physical meeting of sperm and ovum.

·         Such methods available both for male and female.


·         Barriers made of thin rubber/latex sheath.

·         Used to cover the penis in male or vagina and cervix in the female.

·         Used just before coitus so that semen not entered into the female reproductive tract.

·         Male and female condoms are disposable.

·         Prevents AIDS and STDs.

Diaphragm, cervical caps and vaults:

·         Barriers made of rubber.

·         Inserted into the female reproductive tract to cover the cervix.

·         Prevents conception by blocking the entry of sperm through cervix.

·         They are reusable.

Intra Uterine Devices:

·         These devices are only used by female.

·         Inserted by doctor or by expert nurses in the uterus through vagina.

·         Non-medicated IUDs e.g. Lippes loop.

·         Copper releasing IUDs (CuT, Cu7, Multiload 375)

·         Hormone releasing IUDs (Progestasert, LNG-20)

 Principle of working:

·         Increase phagocytosis of sperm within the uterus.

·         Cu ion released suppresses sperm motility and fertilizing capacity of sperm.

·         Hormone releasing IUDs make the uterus unsuitable for implantation and the cervix hostile to the sperm.

Oral contraceptives:

·         This methods used by female only.

·         Used in the form of tablets hence popularly called pills.

·         Pills contain progestogens or progestogen-estrogen combination.

·         Pills have to be taken daily for a period of 21 days.

·         Started within first five days of menstruation.

·         Pills are very effective with lesser side effect.

·         Saheli- a non steroidal preparation used as oral contraceptive pills.

Principle of working:

·         Inhibit ovulation.

·         Inhibit implantation.

·         Alter the quality of cervical mucus to prevent/retard entry of sperms.

Injections or implants:

·         Progesterone alone or in combination with estrogen used as injections or implants under the skin by female.

·         Mode of action is similar as in pills

·         It is very effective for long periods.

Emergency contraceptives:

·         These methods are used within 72 hours of coitus, rape or casual unprotected intercourse.

·         Administration of Progesterone or progesterone-estrogen combination.

·         Use of IUDs.

Surgical methods:

·         It is also called as sterilization method.

·         Advised to both male and female partner.

·         Permanent or terminal method to prevent pregnancy.

·         Sterilization process in male is called ‘vasectomy,

·         Sterilization process in female is called ‘Tubectomy’

·         In vasectomy, a small part of the vas deferens is removed or tied up.

·         In Tubectomy a small part of the fallopian tube is removed.

·         Reversibility is very poor.



·         Intentional or voluntary termination of pregnancy before full term is called medical termination of pregnancy (MTP) or induced abortion.

·         MTP has significant role in decreasing population.

·         It accounts for 1/5th of the total number of conceived pregnancies.

·         Legal restriction only to reduce female foeticide.

·         This method is safe within 1st trimester.

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