Events of endosperm and embryo development, maturation of ovule into seed and ovary into fruit, are collectively termed as post-fertilization events.


·         Development of endosperm takes place before the embryo development.

·         Primary endosperm cell divides repeatedly to form a triploid endosperm.

·         Cells are filled with reserve food material and are used for the nutrition of the developing embryo.

·         PEN undergoes successive nuclear division to give rise to free nuclei. This is called free-nuclear endosperm.

·         Subsequently cell wall formation takes place and become cellular endosperm.

·         The coconut water is free nuclear endosperm and the white kernel is the cellular endosperm.

·         Endosperm may be consumed completely during embryo developed or it may be consumed during germination of seed.


·         Zygote formed and placed at the micropylar end of the embryo sac.

·         Zygote starts its development only after some amount of endosperm formed.

·         Embryo development takes place in following stages:

o    Proembryo

o    Globular stage

o    Heart shaped

o    Matured embryo.


Dicot embryo:

·         A typical dicotyledonous embryo consists of an embryonal axis and two cotyledons.

·         Embryonal axis above the cotyledon is the epicotyls.

·         Terminal part of the epicotyls is the plumule (gives rise to the shoot).

·         Embryonal axis below the cotyledon is the hypocotyl.

·         The terminal part of the hypocotyl is called the radicle (root tip).

·         The root tip is covered by the root cap.

Monocot embryo:

·         Possesses only one cotyledon

·         In grass family the cotyledon is called scutellum.

·         Scutellum situated towards one side of the embryonal axis.

·         Radicle and the root cap enclosed by a sheath called coleorhiza.

·         The portion of the embryonal axis above level of attachment of scutellum is called epicotyls.

·         Epicotyl has the shoot apex or plumule enclosed by hollow foliar structure called coleoptile.

·         Seed is the final product of the sexual reproduction.

·         Seed consists of seed coat, cotyledon and an embryo axis.

·         Cotyledon stores the reserve food material for development and germination.

·         Matured seed without endosperm called non-albuminous. (Ground nut)

·         A part of the endosperm retained in matured seed is Albuminous.

·         Remnants of nucellus in the matured seed are called perisperm. E.g. black pepper, beet.

·         The wall of the ovary develops into the wall of fruit called pericarp.

·         Fruit developed from the ovary is called true fruit.

·         In apple, strawberry, cashew, the thalamus contributes in the fruit formation is called false fruit.

·         Fruit developed without fertilization is called Parthenocarpic fruits.




·         Apomixis is very common in Asteraceae and grasses.

·         Seeds are produced without fertilization.

·         Apomixis is a type of asexual reproduction which mimics the sexual reproduction.

·         Diploid egg cell is formed without meiosis and develops into seed without fertilization.

·         In Citrusand Mango the nucellar cells starts dividing, protrude into the embryo sac and develop into embryo.

·         Ovule having more than one embryo is termed as polyembryony.

·         Hybrid plants are developed by apomixis to maintain the genetic identity.

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