ANIMAL HUSBANDARY

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY:

·         The agricultural practice of breeding and raising livestock.

·         Deals with care and breeding of livestock like buffaloes, cows, pigs, horses, cattle, sheep, camels, goats etc.

·         Extended form includes poultry farming and fisheries.

·         Fisheries include rearing, catching selling etc. of fish, mollusks (shell fish) and crustaceans (prawns, crabs etc.)

Dairy farm management:

·         Dairying is the management of animals for milk and its products.

·         Use of improved breed of cow such as Jersey.

·         Well housed.

·         Should have adequate water

·         Maintained disease free

·         Feeding should be scientific manner.

·         Quantity and quality of fodder

·         Stringent cleanliness and hygiene.

·         Regular visit by a veterinary doctor would be mandatory.

Poultry farm management:

·         Poultry is the class of domesticated fowl (birds) used for food and eggs.

·         Selection of disease free and suitable breeds.

·         The improved breed of poultry is Leghorn.

·         Proper and safe farm conditions

·         Proper feed and water

·         Hygiene and health care.

Animal breeding:

·         A group of animals related by descent and similar in most characters like general appearance, features size, configuration, etc, are said to be a breed.

·         Inbreeding: crosses between same breed.

·         Outbreeding: crosses between different breeds.

Inbreeding:

·         Mating of more closely related individuals within the same breed for 4-6 generations.

·         Superior male and female is identified and mated in pairs.

·         Progeny obtained are evaluated and superior males and females among them are identified for further mating.

·         More milk per lactation is the criteria for superior female for cow and buffalo. Superior male which gives rise to superior progeny.

·         Inbreeding increases homozygosity.

·         Inbreeding is necessary to create pure line in any animal.

·         Inbreeding exposes harmful recessive gens that are eliminated by selection.

·         Helpful in accumulation of superior genes.

·         Continuous inbreeding reduces fertility and even productivity. This is called inbreeding depression.

Outbreeding:

·         Out-breeding is the breeding of unrelated animals.

Out-crossing:

·         Mating of animals within the same breed but having no common ancestor on either side of their pedigree upto 4-6 generations.

·         Offsprings of such mating is called out-cross.

·         A single outcross often helps to overcome inbreeding depression.

Cross-breeding:

·         Superior male of one breed are mated with superior female of another breed.

·         It allows the desirable qualities of two different breeds to be combined.

·         Hisardale is a new breed of sheep developed in Punjab by crossing Bikaneri ewes and Marino rams.

Interspecific hybridization:

·         Male and female of two different species are mated.

·         The progeny may combine desirable features of both the parents.(mule)

Artificial insemination:

·         Controlled breeding experiments are carried out using artificial insemination.

·         The semen is collected from the male and injected into the reproductive tract of the selected female by the breeder.

·         The semen collected may be used immediately or can be frozen for later use. The semen can be transported in a frozen form to where the female is housed.

Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Technology:

·         It is used to improve chances of successful production of hybrids.

·         Cow is administered hormones with FSH-like activity

·         induce follicular maturation and super ovulation

·         Production of 6-8 eggs instead of one egg per cycle.

·         The female is either mated with an elite bull or artificially inseminated.

·         Non-surgical recovery of fertilized eggs at 8-32 cells stages.

·         Each one transferred to surrogate mother.

·         The genetic mother is available for another round of super ovulation.

·         This technology is used to increase herd size in a short time.

Bee – keeping:

·         Bee-keeping is called apiculture.

·         It includes maintenance of hives of honeybees for production of honey.

·         Honey is a food of high nutritive values and also used as medicine.

·         Honey bees also produce beeswax which has many used in industry, like preparation of cosmetics and polishes of various kinds.

·         Bee-keeping practiced in area with sufficient bee pastures of some wild shrubs, fruit orchards and cultivated crops.

·         Apis indica is most common species used in apiculture.

 

·         The following points are important for successful bee-keeping:

o    Knowledge of the nature and habits of bees.

o    Selection of suitable location for keeping the beehives.

o    Catching and hiving of swarms (group of bees)

o    Management of beehives during different seasons.

o    Handling and collection of honey and of beeswax.

o    Bees are the pollinator for many plants, hence keeping beehives in crop fields during flowering period, increases pollination and improve honey yield.

 

Fisheries:

  • Fishery industry related to catching, processing or selling of fish shellfish or other aquatic animals.
  • Common fresh water fish: Catla, Rohu and common carp.

Common marine fishes: Hilsa, Sardines, Mackerel and Pomfrets.

  • Production of aquatic plants and animals, both freshwater and marine water is increased by Pisciculture and aquaculture.
  • Increasing production of the fish is called Blue revolution.

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