· The agricultural practice of breeding and raising livestock.
· Deals with care and breeding of livestock like buffaloes, cows, pigs, horses, cattle, sheep, camels, goats etc.
· Extended form includes poultry farming and fisheries.
· Fisheries include rearing, catching selling etc. of fish, mollusks (shell fish) and crustaceans (prawns, crabs etc.)
Dairy farm management:
· Dairying is the management of animals for milk and its products.
· Use of improved breed of cow such as Jersey.
· Well housed.
· Should have adequate water
· Maintained disease free
· Feeding should be scientific manner.
· Quantity and quality of fodder
· Stringent cleanliness and hygiene.
· Regular visit by a veterinary doctor would be mandatory.
Poultry farm management:
· Poultry is the class of domesticated fowl (birds) used for food and eggs.
· Selection of disease free and suitable breeds.
· The improved breed of poultry is Leghorn.
· Proper and safe farm conditions
· Proper feed and water
· Hygiene and health care.
· A group of animals related by descent and similar in most characters like general appearance, features size, configuration, etc, are said to be a breed.
· Inbreeding: crosses between same breed.
· Outbreeding: crosses between different breeds.
· Mating of more closely related individuals within the same breed for 4-6 generations.
· Superior male and female is identified and mated in pairs.
· Progeny obtained are evaluated and superior males and females among them are identified for further mating.
· More milk per lactation is the criteria for superior female for cow and buffalo. Superior male which gives rise to superior progeny.
· Inbreeding increases homozygosity.
· Inbreeding is necessary to create pure line in any animal.
· Inbreeding exposes harmful recessive gens that are eliminated by selection.
· Helpful in accumulation of superior genes.
· Continuous inbreeding reduces fertility and even productivity. This is called inbreeding depression.
· Out-breeding is the breeding of unrelated animals.
· Mating of animals within the same breed but having no common ancestor on either side of their pedigree upto 4-6 generations.
· Offsprings of such mating is called out-cross.
· A single outcross often helps to overcome inbreeding depression.
· Superior male of one breed are mated with superior female of another breed.
· It allows the desirable qualities of two different breeds to be combined.
· Hisardale is a new breed of sheep developed in Punjab by crossing Bikaneri ewes and Marino rams.
· Male and female of two different species are mated.
· The progeny may combine desirable features of both the parents.(mule)
· Controlled breeding experiments are carried out using artificial insemination.
· The semen is collected from the male and injected into the reproductive tract of the selected female by the breeder.
· The semen collected may be used immediately or can be frozen for later use. The semen can be transported in a frozen form to where the female is housed.
Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Technology:
· It is used to improve chances of successful production of hybrids.
· Cow is administered hormones with FSH-like activity
· induce follicular maturation and super ovulation
· Production of 6-8 eggs instead of one egg per cycle.
· The female is either mated with an elite bull or artificially inseminated.
· Non-surgical recovery of fertilized eggs at 8-32 cells stages.
· Each one transferred to surrogate mother.
· The genetic mother is available for another round of super ovulation.
· This technology is used to increase herd size in a short time.
Bee – keeping:
· Bee-keeping is called apiculture.
· It includes maintenance of hives of honeybees for production of honey.
· Honey is a food of high nutritive values and also used as medicine.
· Honey bees also produce beeswax which has many used in industry, like preparation of cosmetics and polishes of various kinds.
· Bee-keeping practiced in area with sufficient bee pastures of some wild shrubs, fruit orchards and cultivated crops.
· Apis indica is most common species used in apiculture.
· The following points are important for successful bee-keeping:
o Knowledge of the nature and habits of bees.
o Selection of suitable location for keeping the beehives.
o Catching and hiving of swarms (group of bees)
o Management of beehives during different seasons.
o Handling and collection of honey and of beeswax.
o Bees are the pollinator for many plants, hence keeping beehives in crop fields during flowering period, increases pollination and improve honey yield.
Common marine fishes: Hilsa, Sardines, Mackerel and Pomfrets.
Tissue culture is a method of biological research in which fragments of tissue from an animal or plant are transferred to an artificial medium in which they continually survive and function. Somatic hybridization is the technique where two protoplast of two different plants with desirable characters are fused to form somatic hybrid.
Plant breeding is the purposeful manipulation of plants species in order to create desired genotype or phenotype for specific purposes. Certain steps are followed for plant breeding technique.
Single cell protein are dried microbial cells or total protein extracted from pure microbial cell culture. For example, 250 kg cow produce 200 gm of protein per day.