ARTICLES

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C3 AND C4 PATHWAY

Melvin Calvin proposed the C3 pathway and showed that the pathway operated in a cyclic manner; RuBP was regenerated. C4 pathway was worked out by Hatch and Slack where Kranz anatomy is found. Read More >>>

PHOTORESPIRATION

Photorespiration is a biochemical process in plants especially under conditions of water stress and oxygen. RuBisCo is the most abundant enzyme which fixes CO2 during the Calvin cycle. Read More >>>

CHEMIOSMOTIC HYPOTHESIS

Chemiosmotic hypothesis was proposed by Peter Mitchell in 1961 to describe ATP synthesis by way of a proton electro-chemical coupling. Read More >>>

PIGMENTS INVOLVED IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Pigments are molecule that absorb certain wave length of light and reflect all others,. There are two types of pigments; main pigments and accessory pigments. Read More >>>

FACTOR AFFECTING PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Many external and internal factors affect the rate of photosynthesis. Some external factors are light, CO2, temperature, water, leaf anatomy and oxygen while internal factors are chlorophyll content and protoplasmic factor. Importance of factors can be demonstrated with the help of experiments. Read More >>>

SITE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS

All plants are involved in photosynthesis process.The photosynthesis occur in mesophyll cells of leaves. Chloroplast is the main site where the process of photosynthesis completes by the use of inorganic compounds like Carbon-dioxide and water. Read More >>>

PHOTOSYNTHESIS AS A MEANS OF AUTOTROPHIC NUTRITION

Photosynthesis is a process of formation of glucose from simple inorganic substances like CO2 and H2O. There are two types of photosynthetic reaction found in nature; Dark Reaction and Light reaction. Read More >>>

EGESTION

Egestion is the act of discharging undigested or waste material from an organism specifically. It is carried out by lower part of the intestine, rectum. Read More >>>

GASTROINTESTINAL HORMONE

Gastrointestinal hormones are chemical messenger that regulate the physiological functions. Gastrointestinal hormone includes gastrin, secretin, motilin, GIP, ghrelin, VIP, BBS. Read More >>>

CALORIFIC VALUE OF CARBOHYDRATE, PROTEIN AND FAT

The energy value of a food indicates how much energy the human body can gain through metabolism. The energy value specified in KJ/100gm. Read More >>>

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