ARTICLES

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PERISTALSIS

Peristalsis is an involuntary movements of the circular and longitudinal muscles to push the food into the stomach. This is done by peristaltic waves which are generated to pass the food. Read More >>>

DIGESTIVE GLANDS

Food is an important source for human- beings to derive nutritional energy. Digestive glands of the alimentary canal secrete different enzymes and aids in the process of digestion. Read More >>>

HUMAN ALIMENATARY CANAL

Alimentary is a long hollow tube in humans which runs from mouth to anus. Different layers line the alimentary canal.It involves mechanical and chemical breakdown of food. Read More >>>

MASS FLOW HYPOTHESIS

Mass flow hypothesis states that the mass flow of solute take place from the source(mesophyll cells) to the sink (where photosynthesis needed). This theory was proposed by Ernst Munch. Read More >>>

WATER MOVEMENT BY PLANTS

Water transport is important for the uptake of mineral nutrients from the soil. There are three pathways which facilitate the movement of water in plants like apoplast, symplast, trans-membrane pathways. Read More >>>

TRANSPORT OF FOOD BY PHLOEM

Food is synthesized through the process of photosynthesis. It can be transported to different parts of the plant, this function is performed by phloem. Read More >>>

UPTAKE AND TRANSLOCATION OF MINERAL NUTRIENTS

Minerals are move into the roots by using energy in the form of ATP. After the uptake minerals are transported to all parts by transpiration pull. Later they are absorbed by active or passive transport. Read More >>>

DIFFUSION OF GASES

Diffusion is the movement of particles from the region of higher concentration to the region of lower concentration. It is affected by temperature, pressure, density of medium, distance,number of particles per unit volume. Read More >>>

OPENING AND CLOSING OF STOMATA

Opening and closing of stomata is controlled by concentration of solutes in guard cells. Some factors like light, temperature, CO2, O2,hormones regulate the opening and closing of stomata. Read More >>>

TRANSPIRATION

Transpiration explains how water moves up the plant against gravity in tubes via a xylem. Plants pump the water up from the soil to deliver nutrients to their leaves. It is influenced by several factors. Read More >>>

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